• जानिए Torque / bHP / RPM के बारे मे |

    Iss Video main main Torque or bHP k saath RPM ko samjhane ki koshish ki hai. Ye bas ek andaje k kaam ki hai. Iss ye aap pura concept deeply nahi samajh sakte.

    published: 29 Apr 2017
  • What is CC,RPM,Torque & BHP easy explanation hindi

    best spanner set- http://amzn.to/2uwr7qT

    published: 07 May 2017
  • Torque, BHP, RPM and Pickup - Engines Comparison Guide

    This video describes how to compare the performance (torque, bhp, rpm & pickup) of automobile engines. It explains the meaning of Max Torque (Nm@rpm) and Max Power (bhp@rpm).

    published: 02 Apr 2014
  • Rpm Vs Torque. ✔

    This video is explains about RPM and TORQUE. It's a logical explanation and comparison of both. Our Blog. http://www.techtrixinfo.com/ Plz Join Our Face Book Page. http://www.facebook.com/pages/TechTrixInfo/271447906234307 Related topics: What is RPM, what is revolutions per minute, how to measure RPM, how to measure revolutions per minute, what is torque, is rpm and torque the same, difference between rpm and torque, differentiate rpm and torque, what is torque, how to measure torque, what is the unit of torque, is rpm a unit, why rpm is not a unit, what is engine rpm, how to measure engine RPM, how to measure engine torque, how engine torque and rpm related. What is more important in and engine rpm or torque, what torque does, what rpm does, what can we do it engine does not have suffi...

    published: 20 Nov 2012
  • What is Horsepower and Torque?

    In this video, I explain the difference between horsepower and torque.

    published: 10 Dec 2014
  • [ Hindi-हिन्दी ] HorsePower vs Torque - Explained

    Confused about the HorsePower and Torque ?? Then this video is perfect for you. Get connected with me on: Twitter : https://twitter.com/_ankushtyagi Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/14Tyagi

    published: 26 Apr 2016
  • Engine Horsepower vs Wheel Horsepower - Explained

    Engine HP vs Wheel HP. What is the difference between hp and whp? The difference is where the power is measured. Engine horsepower is measured at the flywheel, while wheel horsepower is measured at the (wait for it) wheels! There are losses associated with the drivetrain that cause these numbers to be different. Related Video HP vs. TQ: http://youtu.be/fgLNO3ThGD4 Please feel free to rate, comment, and subscribe! And don't forget to check out my Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/engineeringexplained Also check out my official website: Make suggestions, participate in forums, enter for Car of the Month, learn through logically ordered lessons, read FAQs, and plan your future! http://www.howdoesacarwork.com NEW VIDEOS EVERY WEDNESDAY!

    published: 21 Feb 2013
  • World's Fastest Evo Acceleration

    2000 HP mitsubishi evolution from Greece Is this the fastest evo on earth? Officially this “monster” entered the zone of "brutality". This monster is of course the Mitsubishi Evo IX of Spyros Panopoulos (Extreme Tuners) in Greece, as the latest dynorun of the 4 cylinder Evo, shows 2145 hp in motor and 1720 hp on the wheels with the help of nitromethanol. This car can be seen as the most powerful Evo and it is really an absolute state of art creation, involving Greek companies and engineers. It is not just the absolute number of horsepower pushing the motor to the limits but it is the technology and design of the engine. Initially reduced the displacement of the engine to 1831 cc by 2000, which is the factory version. The move seems ... to be crazy but was needed to fit a longer rod and ...

    published: 23 Dec 2014
  • How torque reduces when Rpm increases -Torque Curve Explained - Must watch

    Torque curve helps you understand about the relationship between torque and RPM. how torque reduces when RPM increases in cars and how the gears in transmission are related to it. Our Web site: www.howmachineworks.com from Team - TechTriXinfo Please Like / Comment / Share to motivate our team. Join our google plus page: https://plus.google.com/+Howmachineworks Join Our Face Book Page: http://www.facebook.com/HowMachineWorks Our Android app Google play: https://play.google.com/store/search?q=techtrixinfo&c=apps Please bookmark our site http://www.HowMachineWorks.com You can Subscribe to us for more technical videos; thanks for your support have a great day.

    published: 09 Dec 2013
  • What is RPM and what is bhp power

    Full details of RPM and BHP power in hindi

    published: 20 Jun 2017
  • 1050bhp Ferrari FXX K Sound In Action at Imola Circuit

    You can also find and follow me on: - Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/19bozzy92/ - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/19Bozzy92YT - Google+: https://plus.google.com/100567781241722617164/posts - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/ste19bozzy92/ Last June during a 2-days shakedown I recorded 4 new Ferrari FXX Ks driving around Imola International Racetrack in Italy. The car is moved by a 6.3 liter V12 engine which is able to produce 860 bhp at 9200 rpm and 750 Nm of torque at 6500 rpm. The engine is coupled with an electric motor which adds around 190 bhp and 150 Nm of torque reacing the insane 1050 bhp mark and 900 Nm of torque. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

    published: 22 Oct 2015
  • Mitsubishi Lancer EVO 2000hp 12,000 rpm Extreme Acceleration

    Extreme evo acceleration !! LIKE & COMMENT FOR MORE! add my facebook : http://www.facebook.com/moskus93

    published: 14 Dec 2014
  • How to Estimate BHP and Crank HP (Instructions in Description)

    How to Calculate Crank HP 1. Cubic inches X 1.25 2. Calculated # X 0.90 = Crank Torque 3. Calculated # X RPM / 5252 = Crank HP How to Calculate BHP 1. Cubic Inches X 1.25 = Torque 2. Calculated # X RPM / 5252 = BHP

    published: 17 Aug 2016
  • BHP Vs PS - Used, Technical Term Differences of BHP and PS

    Difference between bhp and ps? What is horsepower? Hp, & ps explained power converter bhp, kw which? . Difference between power & torque which is better? Bikesindia. Bhp vs ps can anyone tell me the difference between measuring a cars power in bhp and. 01 ps vw seem to use bhp and ford use ps. Bhp is the most widely used measure of engine power alongside ps (see below), although it's may 26, 2010 bhp vs there are a number ways to that it still in advertising as lot people familiar with term generally divided into three main units different areas across globe, manufacturers will often pick and choose between hp depending on (brake horse power). 014 engine tuners tend to use bspp (brake shetland pony power) sep 20, 2016 in terms of automotive engineering, it is 'horse power' (hp). Eu technic...

    published: 31 Jan 2017
  • Cars: engine power and transmission - 3D animation

    The physical principles behind car gears. Visit my homepage, http://www.zutopedia.com/udia.html, or read about my latest book http://www.zutopedia.com This video offers an unusual perspective to the relation between engine power, RPM and acceleration. Some comments: 1) Torque - a gear of radius R that exerts force F is said to have a torque of T=R*F. Engines do not produce force per se, but torque. So if the engine produces a torque of T, and that is transmitted unchanged to a gear of radius R, you a get a force of T/R. The video offers an alternative view, where the relation between RPM, power and accelartion is explained without torques. See more about torques in this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sm4pV3xyJRE 2) Efficiency - this video assumes and ideal world with 100% effi...

    published: 31 Dec 2011
जानिए Torque / bHP / RPM के बारे मे |

जानिए Torque / bHP / RPM के बारे मे |

  • Order:
  • Duration: 6:03
  • Updated: 29 Apr 2017
  • views: 126996
videos
Iss Video main main Torque or bHP k saath RPM ko samjhane ki koshish ki hai. Ye bas ek andaje k kaam ki hai. Iss ye aap pura concept deeply nahi samajh sakte.
https://wn.com/जानिए_Torque_Bhp_Rpm_के_बारे_मे_|
What is CC,RPM,Torque & BHP easy explanation hindi

What is CC,RPM,Torque & BHP easy explanation hindi

  • Order:
  • Duration: 5:41
  • Updated: 07 May 2017
  • views: 48115
videos
best spanner set- http://amzn.to/2uwr7qT
https://wn.com/What_Is_Cc,Rpm,Torque_Bhp_Easy_Explanation_Hindi
Torque, BHP, RPM and Pickup - Engines Comparison Guide

Torque, BHP, RPM and Pickup - Engines Comparison Guide

  • Order:
  • Duration: 3:47
  • Updated: 02 Apr 2014
  • views: 47132
videos
This video describes how to compare the performance (torque, bhp, rpm & pickup) of automobile engines. It explains the meaning of Max Torque (Nm@rpm) and Max Power (bhp@rpm).
https://wn.com/Torque,_Bhp,_Rpm_And_Pickup_Engines_Comparison_Guide
Rpm Vs Torque. ✔

Rpm Vs Torque. ✔

  • Order:
  • Duration: 3:16
  • Updated: 20 Nov 2012
  • views: 164287
videos
This video is explains about RPM and TORQUE. It's a logical explanation and comparison of both. Our Blog. http://www.techtrixinfo.com/ Plz Join Our Face Book Page. http://www.facebook.com/pages/TechTrixInfo/271447906234307 Related topics: What is RPM, what is revolutions per minute, how to measure RPM, how to measure revolutions per minute, what is torque, is rpm and torque the same, difference between rpm and torque, differentiate rpm and torque, what is torque, how to measure torque, what is the unit of torque, is rpm a unit, why rpm is not a unit, what is engine rpm, how to measure engine RPM, how to measure engine torque, how engine torque and rpm related. What is more important in and engine rpm or torque, what torque does, what rpm does, what can we do it engine does not have sufficient torque, how to increase engine rpm, how to under the recommended rpm for your engine, how to understand the recommended torque setting for your engine,
https://wn.com/Rpm_Vs_Torque._✔
What is Horsepower and Torque?

What is Horsepower and Torque?

  • Order:
  • Duration: 5:38
  • Updated: 10 Dec 2014
  • views: 553367
videos
In this video, I explain the difference between horsepower and torque.
https://wn.com/What_Is_Horsepower_And_Torque
[ Hindi-हिन्दी ] HorsePower vs Torque - Explained

[ Hindi-हिन्दी ] HorsePower vs Torque - Explained

  • Order:
  • Duration: 4:16
  • Updated: 26 Apr 2016
  • views: 45415
videos
Confused about the HorsePower and Torque ?? Then this video is perfect for you. Get connected with me on: Twitter : https://twitter.com/_ankushtyagi Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/14Tyagi
https://wn.com/Hindi_हिन्दी_Horsepower_Vs_Torque_Explained
Engine Horsepower vs Wheel Horsepower - Explained

Engine Horsepower vs Wheel Horsepower - Explained

  • Order:
  • Duration: 4:34
  • Updated: 21 Feb 2013
  • views: 189617
videos
Engine HP vs Wheel HP. What is the difference between hp and whp? The difference is where the power is measured. Engine horsepower is measured at the flywheel, while wheel horsepower is measured at the (wait for it) wheels! There are losses associated with the drivetrain that cause these numbers to be different. Related Video HP vs. TQ: http://youtu.be/fgLNO3ThGD4 Please feel free to rate, comment, and subscribe! And don't forget to check out my Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/engineeringexplained Also check out my official website: Make suggestions, participate in forums, enter for Car of the Month, learn through logically ordered lessons, read FAQs, and plan your future! http://www.howdoesacarwork.com NEW VIDEOS EVERY WEDNESDAY!
https://wn.com/Engine_Horsepower_Vs_Wheel_Horsepower_Explained
World's Fastest Evo Acceleration

World's Fastest Evo Acceleration

  • Order:
  • Duration: 3:57
  • Updated: 23 Dec 2014
  • views: 1442102
videos
2000 HP mitsubishi evolution from Greece Is this the fastest evo on earth? Officially this “monster” entered the zone of "brutality". This monster is of course the Mitsubishi Evo IX of Spyros Panopoulos (Extreme Tuners) in Greece, as the latest dynorun of the 4 cylinder Evo, shows 2145 hp in motor and 1720 hp on the wheels with the help of nitromethanol. This car can be seen as the most powerful Evo and it is really an absolute state of art creation, involving Greek companies and engineers. It is not just the absolute number of horsepower pushing the motor to the limits but it is the technology and design of the engine. Initially reduced the displacement of the engine to 1831 cc by 2000, which is the factory version. The move seems ... to be crazy but was needed to fit a longer rod and reach the ground rod with the crank as we can find in motorbikes and Formula 1 cars. The aluminum rods and pistons are manufacturing by the company Spyros Panopoyloy, the static compression ratio is 17: 1. The same applies to the crankshaft having a specific design and construction in order to be have the correct structure and counterweights at 12,000 rpm. Which is needed to balance the weight of the piston and connecting rod in such turns. Note that lubrication is a dry carter. The cylinder head is the most crucial point for performance and reliability, and therefore they are made of 16 titanium valves. The car is also equipped wit a billet camshafts kit, designed to perform and control the engine from 11-12000 rpm and transferring engine performance over 118%. The turbo is a well known T6 garrett GTX55 91 mm intake fan (on the dyno that has been tested with a GTX55 and 94 mm while producing ... 2150 hp!) and on wheels reached the 1900 hp. This EVO is equipped with a 6-speed sequential gearbox. In dragster track the EVO managed to do a 8.7 seconds with an output speed of 266 km/hour (the set time was 1.5 bar mechanical pressure and 1050 horses to the wheels). Because of the tremendous power ... that has not been tested in conditions of roads as there is no grip! Measurements have been made and have shown an acceleration from 80 to 280 km/hour in just 5.8 seconds, during which time it may not exist anywhere in the world for such a car. Such a monster .. to move have to burn methanol and nitromethane. Finally it is worth mentioning another record and having regard to the special performance ratio, ie the 1171 hp per liter has outgrown the old Formula BMW in 1500 c.c. where attributed 1500 hp, and therefore 1000 horsepower per liter! Specifications Car: Mitsubishi Evo IX Engine 4G63 4 cylinder 16V Turbo Power: 1416 hp (57 psi) Weight: 1477 kg (no fuel) Roll (2nd gear): 60-100 1,4s 60-120 2,19s 60-160 4,03s 60-200 5,99s 100-200 4,59s Acceleration (3rd gear): 100-120 0,75s 120-160 1,86s 1/4 mile: Estimated 8.8 seconds Other bits & bytes on this car: - Forged titanium cranks - Hollow billet forged titanium cams - Titanium valves - Beryllium valve seats - Cobalt valve guides
https://wn.com/World's_Fastest_Evo_Acceleration
How torque reduces when Rpm increases -Torque Curve Explained - Must watch

How torque reduces when Rpm increases -Torque Curve Explained - Must watch

  • Order:
  • Duration: 3:27
  • Updated: 09 Dec 2013
  • views: 181112
videos
Torque curve helps you understand about the relationship between torque and RPM. how torque reduces when RPM increases in cars and how the gears in transmission are related to it. Our Web site: www.howmachineworks.com from Team - TechTriXinfo Please Like / Comment / Share to motivate our team. Join our google plus page: https://plus.google.com/+Howmachineworks Join Our Face Book Page: http://www.facebook.com/HowMachineWorks Our Android app Google play: https://play.google.com/store/search?q=techtrixinfo&c=apps Please bookmark our site http://www.HowMachineWorks.com You can Subscribe to us for more technical videos; thanks for your support have a great day.
https://wn.com/How_Torque_Reduces_When_Rpm_Increases_Torque_Curve_Explained_Must_Watch
What is RPM and what is bhp power

What is RPM and what is bhp power

  • Order:
  • Duration: 2:46
  • Updated: 20 Jun 2017
  • views: 24
videos
Full details of RPM and BHP power in hindi
https://wn.com/What_Is_Rpm_And_What_Is_Bhp_Power
1050bhp Ferrari FXX K Sound In Action at Imola Circuit

1050bhp Ferrari FXX K Sound In Action at Imola Circuit

  • Order:
  • Duration: 6:34
  • Updated: 22 Oct 2015
  • views: 95460
videos
You can also find and follow me on: - Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/19bozzy92/ - Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/19Bozzy92YT - Google+: https://plus.google.com/100567781241722617164/posts - Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/ste19bozzy92/ Last June during a 2-days shakedown I recorded 4 new Ferrari FXX Ks driving around Imola International Racetrack in Italy. The car is moved by a 6.3 liter V12 engine which is able to produce 860 bhp at 9200 rpm and 750 Nm of torque at 6500 rpm. The engine is coupled with an electric motor which adds around 190 bhp and 150 Nm of torque reacing the insane 1050 bhp mark and 900 Nm of torque. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Watch all my videos about the Ferrari XX Programme cars here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLVXDATkz-sm49Qe5AnfIuOfcFeLFJbgCp ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Camcorder: Canon Legria HF G30 + Canon DM100 Microphone Event: Shakedown Ferrari FXX K Where: Autodromo di Imola, Italy Link To My Channel: http://www.youtube.com/user/19Bozzy92?feature=watch THANKS FOR WATCHING & SUBSCRIBE!!!
https://wn.com/1050Bhp_Ferrari_Fxx_K_Sound_In_Action_At_Imola_Circuit
Mitsubishi Lancer EVO 2000hp 12,000 rpm Extreme Acceleration

Mitsubishi Lancer EVO 2000hp 12,000 rpm Extreme Acceleration

  • Order:
  • Duration: 2:17
  • Updated: 14 Dec 2014
  • views: 1077416
videos
Extreme evo acceleration !! LIKE & COMMENT FOR MORE! add my facebook : http://www.facebook.com/moskus93
https://wn.com/Mitsubishi_Lancer_Evo_2000Hp_12,000_Rpm_Extreme_Acceleration
How to Estimate BHP and Crank HP (Instructions in Description)

How to Estimate BHP and Crank HP (Instructions in Description)

  • Order:
  • Duration: 2:05
  • Updated: 17 Aug 2016
  • views: 48
videos
How to Calculate Crank HP 1. Cubic inches X 1.25 2. Calculated # X 0.90 = Crank Torque 3. Calculated # X RPM / 5252 = Crank HP How to Calculate BHP 1. Cubic Inches X 1.25 = Torque 2. Calculated # X RPM / 5252 = BHP
https://wn.com/How_To_Estimate_Bhp_And_Crank_Hp_(Instructions_In_Description)
BHP Vs PS - Used, Technical Term Differences of BHP and PS

BHP Vs PS - Used, Technical Term Differences of BHP and PS

  • Order:
  • Duration: 0:59
  • Updated: 31 Jan 2017
  • views: 890
videos
Difference between bhp and ps? What is horsepower? Hp, & ps explained power converter bhp, kw which? . Difference between power & torque which is better? Bikesindia. Bhp vs ps can anyone tell me the difference between measuring a cars power in bhp and. 01 ps vw seem to use bhp and ford use ps. Bhp is the most widely used measure of engine power alongside ps (see below), although it's may 26, 2010 bhp vs there are a number ways to that it still in advertising as lot people familiar with term generally divided into three main units different areas across globe, manufacturers will often pick and choose between hp depending on (brake horse power). 014 engine tuners tend to use bspp (brake shetland pony power) sep 20, 2016 in terms of automotive engineering, it is 'horse power' (hp). Eu technical torque brake refers to a device which was used load an engine and hold it at desired rotational speed. Versus aerodynamic drag determines maximum speed, but torque versus what is the diference between ps and bhp, why have most companies stoppedthe term 'ps' used in japan, also continental europe. Bhp is less than the total horsepower of an engine and looks at amount energy remaining feb 1, 2016 plain english guide to hp, bhp, kw, ps cv which measure they like best and, make matters worse, all use different ones. Difference between bhp and ps? Both units are widely used in the automotive world. Cr4 thread what's the difference between hp and bhp? . What is the difference between hp (horse power) and bhp (brake 'all my technical advices in this forum must be consulted with brake horsepower was a term commonly used before 1970s some sources give it as 735. If you want to be technical about it one horsepower can lift 33,000 dec 16, 2013 i should probably add that break (bhp) is measured at the source lazymotorbike. Brake horsepower (bhp) is the measure of an engine's without loss that means if your bike has top speed 120 kmph with 17 ps power, somehow new suzuki access 125 vs honda activa shootout it may be but those are terms we use in automobile actual technical terms( i study them my maximum power 19. Difference between bhp and ps what's the difference bhp, hp, kw ps? Car throttle. What is bhp, ps, kw and torque? A simple explaination by rac bhp explained difference between ps xbhp. What is the difference between bhp and cc? Quorawhat ps team. What is bhp, ps & nm in automobile? Quora. W, but it is generally used interchangeably with the german 'ps'. The term 'horse power' the relation between bhp, ps & kw is 1 hp. Bhp @ 5250 rpm or 17 8,500rpm horsepower and torque are closely related, yet they stand for two different aspects in mathematical terms, one is the power needed to move 550 example, if you use a foot long wrench apply 10 pounds of force difference this ps (or cv) 1. An explanation into the different terms used by car makers to demonstrate engine power it would only accelerate better as long gearbox was full keep speed then gives output, called brake horse (bhp). I imagine a more technical explanation will follow this is the simple one line in simplistic terms. Bhp (brake horse bhp motorcycle engines cars vs. Difference between toyota camry v4 and v6? Yeis, technical stuff, 11, 15th may 2006 15 49 bhp, ps, kw & torque explained in plain english. Brake horsepower is, in car terms, effectively the same as and simply our free tool lets you easily switch between bhp, ps kw. Performance what is the meaning of bhp and torque in bikes or horsepower wikicars. When the fuel mixture inside an engine explodes, it generates ps is a german word which means pferdestrke equivalent of horsepower or what difference between bhp and cc? Since many engines were rated as per din standards (german standards), unit used cc are two different terms to define parameters. Two common definitions in use today are the mechanical horsepower (or pferdestrke ps (german translation of horsepower) is a name for group similar power measurements used germany what difference between bhp and ps,how do one calculate this thing? ? ? Bhp british system as metric 1 i think hp most widely understood & accepted term. Motorcycles car engines what is bhp, ps & nm in automobile? Do cars with a large cc engine, high horsepower (hp) unit of measurement power there are many different standards and types. During you will usually hear two different terms torque and horsepower in scientific discourse the term 'horsepower' is rarely used due to various units indicate this definition ('ps', 'cv', 'pk', 'ch') all english 'horse power', but mathematically from british unit. What's the difference between torque and horsepower bhp, ps, kw, cv or what ? ? Engine horse power definition formula explainedcrankit.
https://wn.com/Bhp_Vs_Ps_Used,_Technical_Term_Differences_Of_Bhp_And_Ps
Cars: engine power and transmission - 3D animation

Cars: engine power and transmission - 3D animation

  • Order:
  • Duration: 4:32
  • Updated: 31 Dec 2011
  • views: 407161
videos
The physical principles behind car gears. Visit my homepage, http://www.zutopedia.com/udia.html, or read about my latest book http://www.zutopedia.com This video offers an unusual perspective to the relation between engine power, RPM and acceleration. Some comments: 1) Torque - a gear of radius R that exerts force F is said to have a torque of T=R*F. Engines do not produce force per se, but torque. So if the engine produces a torque of T, and that is transmitted unchanged to a gear of radius R, you a get a force of T/R. The video offers an alternative view, where the relation between RPM, power and accelartion is explained without torques. See more about torques in this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sm4pV3xyJRE 2) Efficiency - this video assumes and ideal world with 100% efficiency. No energy is wasted on friction or any other mechanical losses. 3) Another simplifying assumption is that the engine produces a constant torque, and thus a constant force. As mentioned in one of the comments in the end, this is not the case with real engines. In most engines the torque rises as RPM rises, peaks at some RPM, and then starts to fall. Because of that the power does not steadily increase with RPM. It increases in the beginning, and continues to increase a little bit after the torque peaks. Then as the torque starts to dimish significantly, the power reduces as well. 4) Measurments - here are the measurments used in the simulation: 16 teeth gear radius: 18cm = 0.6 ft Force exerted by this gear: 196N = 44.1 lb Car wheel radius: 21cm=0.7 ft Car weight: 352kg = 775 lb 5) The car wheels are slightly bigger than the 16-teeth gear, and this is adds up to the gear ratio effect. In the first car, for example, while the transmission box has a gear ratio of 1:1, the larger wheels cause an overall gear ratio of 1.18:1. This can be seen at time 2:25, where the wheel's power visualization is slightly elongated (a bit more speed and a bit less force).
https://wn.com/Cars_Engine_Power_And_Transmission_3D_Animation
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